Note that in the finished product this literature review section will be about six paragraphs, so students need to gather enough facts to fit this format. Have students identify common themes and possible answers to their own research question by reviewing the topic and concluding sentences in their literature review. Note that a good question always leads to more questions. Each article used on the Research Paper Scaffold needs to yield several relevant facts, so students may need to collect more than five articles to have adequate sources. Normally it takes one day to complete research plans and one to two weeks to conduct the test.

Study results can be displayed in any kind of visual medium, such as a poster, PowerPoint presentation, or brochure. This question is too narrow for a five-page paper as it can be answered in just a few words. Distribute copies of the Research Paper Scoring Rubric and go over the criteria so that students understand how their final written work will be evaluated. Your students can save their work with Student Interactives. Using Internet search engines such as Google can be overwhelming to beginning researchers.

research paper scaffold readwritethink

The survey should have no more than 10 questions. Allow students at least a week for research.

Scaffolding Methods for Research Paper Writing – ReadWriteThink

References and Writing Final Draft. Show how making a numbered list of possible themes, drawn from the different perspectives proposed in the literature, can be useful for analysis.

Check that students have correctly identified and marked relevant information before allowing them to proceed to the Literature Review section on the Research Paper Scaffold.

research paper scaffold readwritethink

Remind students that if they copy directly from a text they need to put the copied material in quotation marks and note the page number readwritetink the source. Inform students of the schedule for submitting their research plans for approval and completing their original research.


Check the Conclusion section after students have completed it, to see that it contains a logical summary and is consistent with the study results. Instruct students to complete the Literature Review section of the Research Paper Scaffold, including the last name of the author and the publication date for each article to prepare for using APA citation style.

Pass out copies of the Research Paper Scaffold. In the Example Research Paper Scaffold, there are four possible explanations given for the effects of color on mood.

For large classes, have students highlight relevant information as described below and submit the articles for assessment before beginning the session.

Return the Research Paper Scaffolds to students with comments and corrections. Remind students that their research question can provide the keywords for a targeted Internet search. Explain that information found in the articles may lead students to broaden their research question. Distribute copies of the Research Paper Paer Rubric and go over the criteria so that students understand how their final written work will be evaluated. Explain that interesting facts that are not relevant for the literature review section can be listed in the section labeled Hook.

Instruct students to list the ideas and summarize their similarities and differences in the space provided for Analysis on the scaffold.

research paper scaffold readwritethink

Go over this rubric readwriyethink Session 8, before they write their final drafts. Use active, present tense verbs when possible. Explain that students should take readwrtiethink not to formulate a research question so broad that it cannot be answered, or so narrow that it can be answered in a sentence or two.


Discuss the Conclusion section of the Example Research Paper Scaffold from the standpoint of these guidelines. Quantitative results can be reported on a chart, graph, or table.

During collaborative work, offer feedback and guidance to those who need encouragement or require assistance in learning cooperation and tolerance. This means no unsupervised, dangerous experiments. Explain that in this session students will compare the information they have gathered from various sources to identify themes.

Scaffolding Methods for Research Paper Writing

Using these types of resources will help to ensure that students find relevant and appropriate information. A wide range of ages should be included if possible.

Introduce the characteristics of a good research question. Note that in the finished product this literature review section will be about six paragraphs, so students need to gather enough facts to fit this format. Quantitative studies have large numbers of participants and produce a large collection of data such as results from people taking a question survey. Encourage students to use the Conclusion section to point out discrepancies and similarities in their findings, and to propose further studies.

How does color affect mood?

The test must be safe, both physically and mentally, for those involved. The most important strategy in using this model is that students be allowed, within the assigned topic framework, to ask their own research questions.