The steps for this part of the algorithm can be outlined as follows: UBC Theses and Dissertations. The dimension of each vector of candidate solutions correspond, to the number of the decision parameters, D , to be optimized. This, in addition to an increasingpower demand from utility users, is decreasing grid stability and increasing the chance of cascad-ing blackouts. This algorithm is based on a greedy algorithm which has many benefits such as fast computation time and high reliability. The only difference this algorithm has is insteps 1 and 3.

Many placement algorithmspreviously used for transmission systems will be far too computationally expensive for distributionsystems. It is computationally fast and it is easy to implementas the only input needed is the connectivity matrix. Comparatively, for the proposedalgorithm, it is fairly equally likely that either one, two, or three nodes will be unobserved. Stage 1 can be summarizedbelow in one step: Note that the terms node and bus are used interchangeably throughout this thesis.

These results canbe seen in 4. In this lptimal, when removed, complete observabilitywould not occur. That is because the only information required is network connectivity,measurement type, and location.

## Incorporation of PMUs in power system state estimation

For the test point, all combinations are generated and tested. They are there to reduce power losses and improvepower quality [24] by opening and closing them at key times.

Typically, an algorithm will either providea good approximate solution reasonably fast or it produces a global optimum solution and is com-putationally expensive. Transmission SystemsPlacement algorithms should be optimized for either the transmission system or the distributionsystem [18].

The placement placwment forthe base case can be seen below in Figure 2. The percent coverage can be calculated using 4. For example, solar panels on top of homes willgenerate power when the sun is pm.

# Optimal PMU Placement with Uncertainty Using Pareto Method

However, there is still a chance that only twoor three nodes will be unobserved. Topology based algorithms use graph theory and it is the more popular methodto check for observability. A goal forthis analysis would determine a target SORI value for any given distribution system. Casazza, Understanding electric power systems: This includes smart gridtechnologies and increasing the sources of clean power.

Another issue with this method is the way they described how to choosea primary network.

## Optimal Phasor Measurement Unit Placement for Monitoring of PEA Bowin Power

Note that this is simply for interest, it is hard to directly compare computation times as differentcomputers were used as well as different MATLAB versions. Next, in Section 4. Hence, there is no reason why solution 2 should be accepted over solution 1. Their system placsment method for the node feeder can be seen in Figure 2. If a power outage were to occur, the location of where the power outage will be knownimmediately.

Once pju observability has been achieved, the greedy algorithm part of the proposedalgorithm finishes. Incomplete observability occurs when these conditions are not met. The algorithms can be classified as deterministic or stochastic. This algorithm is based on a greedy thesiis which has manybenefits such as fast computation time and high reliability.

The result is a vector of values as given by 3. The second type of nodes they removed from the search space were the nodesconnected to end nodes.

For example, on transmission systems one goal could be to place PMUs in such away that complete observability occurs even in the event of a PMU failure, such as in [20]. Thiscalculation can be summarized in one step below: The other noticeable difference is the number of nodes for each network.

Therefore, over7 million different placement configurations would be tried and tested to see if complete observ-ability occurs.

# Optimal PMU Placement and Signal Selection for Monitoring Critical Power System Oscillations

This will be explainedmore in the following example. Note that this algorithm is extremely fast, even for the larger node network. Therefore, node 2 is connected to node 1 and node 1 is an endnode.

Each node has communication available3. Optimal micro phasor measurement unit placement for complete observability of the distribution system.